History of Jogjakarta
Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (Yogyakarta Special Region) or usually abbreviated as DIY is one of the province-level autonomous regions in Indonesia. This province has its capital in Yogyakarta. From the name of this area, it is Yogyakarta Special Region as well as its status as a Special Region. Status as a Special Region is related to the historical sequence of the founding of this province, both before and after the Proclamation of Independence of the Republic of Indonesia. According to Babad Gianti, Yogyakarta or Ngayogyakarta (Javanese) was the name given by Paku Buwono II (king of Mataram in 1719-1727) as a replacement for the name of the Gartitawati guesthouse.
Yogyakarta means Yogya which is hard, Yogya which is prosperous, while Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat means Yogya which is prosperous and the most important. Another source says that the name Yogyakarta is taken from the name (mother) of the Sanskrit city of Ayodhya in the epic Ramayana. In everyday use, Yogyakarta is usually pronounced Jogja (karta) or Ngayogyakarta (Javanese). Before Indonesia became independent, Yogyakarta already had a tradition of government because Yogyakarta was a Sultanate, including the Duchy of Pakualaman. The area that had its origins in its own government, during the Dutch East Indies colonial era, was called Zelfbesturende Landschappen. At the time of independence it was called the Swapraja Region. The Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate was founded in 1755, founded by Prince Mangkubumi, who later had the title Sultan Hamengku Buwono I. The Pakualaman Kadipaten, founded in 1813, was founded by Prince Notokusumo, (brother of Sultan Hamengku Buwono II), who later had the title Duke of Paku Alam I. Both the Sultanate and Pakualaman were recognized. by the Dutch East Indies Government as a kingdom with the right to regulate its own household.
All of this is stated in the political contract. The Sultanate’s final political contract was listed in Staatsblad 1941 No. 47 and Pakualaman’s political contract in Staatsblaad 1941 No. 577. At the time of the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence, Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX and Sri Paku Alam VIII sent a cable to the President of the Republic of Indonesia, stating that the Yogyakarta Sultanate Region and the Pakualaman Region were part of the territory of the Republic of Indonesia, and merged into one to create one unified Special Region of Yogyakarta. Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono IX and Sri Paku Alam VIII as Regional Head and Deputy Regional Head report directly to the President of the Republic of Indonesia. The legal guidelines are:
1. Charter of office of Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono IX and Sri Paku Alam VIII dated 19 August 1945 from the President of the Republic of Indonesia.
2. The Mandate of Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono IX and the Mandate of Sri Paku Alam VIII dated 5 September 1945 (which were made separately).
3. The mandate of Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono IX and Sri Paku Alam VIII dated 30 October 1945 (which was made together in one manuscript).
From 4 January 1946 to 17 December 1949, Yogyakarta was the capital of the Republic of Indonesia. In fact, during the struggle and even experienced very exciting moments, the Republic of Indonesia almost ended its history. Therefore, the leaders of the Indonesian nation who gathered and fought in Yogyakarta have their own memories of this region. Moreover, after the war was over, young people continued their studies at Gajah Mada University, a state university that was first founded by the President of the Republic of Indonesia, which also became a living monument to commemorate the Yogyakarta struggle.
At this time the Yogyakarta Palace was led by Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono X and Puro Pakualaman by Sri Paduka Paku Alam IX. Both of them play a very decisive role in maintaining Javanese cultural values and customs and are the unifier of Yogyakarta society. On the basis of article 18 of the 1945 Law, the People’s Representative Council of the Special Region of Yogyakarta wishes that its position as a Special Region for Level I Regions remain sustainable by remembering the history of the formation and development of its Regional Government which should be respected.
Article 18 of the 1945 Constitution states that “the division of Indonesia’s regions into large and small regions, with the form of government structure determined by law taking into account and remembering the basis of deliberation in the State Government system and the rights of origin in the Regions. something special.” As an Autonomous Region at the provincial level, the Special Region of Yogyakarta was formed by Law No. 3 of 1950, in accordance with the intent of Article 18 of the 1945 Constitution. It is stated that the Yogyakarta Special Region includes the former Yogyakarta Region/Ksultanate and the Pakualaman Region. As the capital of the Special Region of Yogyakarta Province, Yogyakarta City is rich in titles, both from history and existing potential, such as a city of struggle, a city of culture, a student city and a tourism city.
The title city of struggle for this city relates to Yogyakarta’s role in the constellation of the struggle of the Indonesian people during the Dutch colonial era, the Japanese colonial era, and during the struggle to maintain independence. Yogyakarta was once the center of kingdoms, both the Mataram Kingdom (Islam), the Yogyakarta Sultanate and the Duchy of Pakualaman. The term cultural city for this city is closely related to the high-value cultural remains of those kingdoms which are still preserved today. This term is also related to the many arts and cultural centers. The term Mataram, which is widely used today, is nothing but pride in the glory of the Mataram Kingdom.
The title as a student city is related to the history and role of this city in the world of education in Indonesia. Apart from the variety of education at every level of education available in this province, in Yogyakarta there are many students and students from all regions in Indonesia. It is not an exaggeration to call Yogyakarta a miniature Indonesia. The term Yogyakarta as a tourism city describes the potential of this province from a tourism perspective. Yogyakarta is the second largest tourist destination after Bali. Various types of tourist attractions are developed in this region, such as natural tourism, historical tourism, cultural tourism, educational tourism, and even, most recently, night tourism. Apart from the titles above, the history and status of Yogyakarta is an interesting thing to pay attention to. The name of the region uses the title DIY as well as its status as a Special Region. Yogyakarta’s status as a Special Region relates to the history of Yogyakarta, both before and after the Proclamation of Independence of the Republic of Indonesia.