Jawa Timur – East Java

History of East Java

In the history of the nation, the process of forming the government and regional structure of East Java has apparently had a very long journey. From epigraphic sources in the form of inscribed stones (the Dinoyo Inscription), it is known that since the VIII century, precisely in 770, a government unit, the Kanjuruhan Kingdom in Malang, has emerged in East Java, the site of which is still debated.

In the X century, East Java entered a new phase. East Java, which was originally a peripheral region of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom in Central Java, then gained momentum as the center of power for various kingdoms, such as Medang (937-1017), Kahuripan (1019-1049), Daha-Janggala (1080-1222), Singasari (1080-1222), 1222-1292) and Majapahit (1293-1527). In this case, Mpu Shendok (929-947) was the most instrumental figure who succeeded in laying the foundations of government in East Java.

The hierarchical government structure consists of the Central Government (Kraton), Watek (Regional) and Wanau (Village). This structure continued to survive until the XIII century during the Singasari era.

In the XIII century there was a new development in the constitutional structure in Indonesia in East Java, marked by the emergence of a new structure in government, namely Nagara (Province).

Based on the Mulamalurung Inscription (1255) from the time of Vishnu Wardhana, who also had the title Sminingrat, it was stated that the government structure of Singasari was from the Center (Kraton), Nagara (Province), Watek (Regency), and Wanau (Village).

During the Majapahit Kingdom, this structure received various improvements, consisting of Bhumi (Central/Keraton), Negara (Province/Bhantara), Thani/Wanua (Village/Level) and at the bottom Kabuyutan (Dusun/Rama).

The strange state structure of Majapahit (1294-1755). The Mataram region is divided concentrically into Kuthagara/Nagara (Central/Kraton), Negaragung/negaraangung (Inner Province), Mancanagara (Outer Province), Regency and Village.

Etymologically, the term East Java in the Islamic Mataram era appeared with the name Bang Wetan, with the area covering the entire Wetan Coast and Mancanagara Wetan (Inland East Java).

Furthermore, after the Chinese riots in Kartasura (1742), the entire northern coastal region of Java and the entire island of Madura fell into the hands of the Company, while the Mataram area remained in the interior of Java (Mancanagara Wetan-Mancanagara Kulon).

With the end of the Dipanegara war (1830), all of East Java (Bang Wetan) was controlled by the Dutch East Indies Government. From 1830-1928/1929, the Dutch ran the government with direct relations between the VOC Central Government in Batavia and the Regents in their territory.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, the Dutch East Indies government implemented the politics of modern imperialism by intensifying government by forming the East Java Provincial Government (Provincient van Oost Java) in 1929, with a government structure, territory and bureaucracy not much different from what exists today.

After the Proclamation of Independence, the Government of the Republic of Indonesia began to organize state life. Based on Article 1 of the 1945 Constitution, on 19 August 1945, the PPKI established Provinces and determined their Governors.

For the first time R.M.T. Soerjo, who at that time served as Resident of Bojonegoro, was appointed as the first Governor of East Java. R.M.T. Soerjo, who was inaugurated on 5 September 1945, had to complete his duties in Bojonegoro until 11 October 1945, and only on 12 October 1945 did he move to Surabaya, the capital of East Java Province, which marked the start of the mechanism of the East Java Provincial Government.

On the basis of considering this historical journey, East Java Provincial Regulation Number 6 of 2007 concerning the Anniversary of East Java Province was issued which stipulates October 12 as the Anniversary of East Java and will be commemorated officially every year, both at the Provincial and Regency/City levels. throughout East Java.