History of South Kalimantan
For South Kalimantan, January 1 1957 was truly an important moment in its history, considering that on that date South Kalimantan officially became an independent province on the island of Kalimantan, together with East Kalimantan Province and West Kalimantan Province. Previously, these three provinces were in one province, namely Kalimantan Province.
Before becoming an independent province, South Kalimantan was actually the most prominent area on the island of Kalimantan, especially the city of Banjarmasin which was the center of political, economic/trade and government activities, both during colonialism and at the beginning of independence.
The development of government and state life in the South Kalimantan area up to the beginning of the 17th century was still very unclear due to a lack of historical data. The existence of the Hikayat Raja-Raja Banjar and Hikayat Kotawaringin is not enough to provide a definite picture of the existence of these kingdoms.
However, based on these two stories, it can be seen that in the 17th century, one of the figures, namely Prince Samudera (the grandson of Maharaja Sukarama), with the help of the Patihs, rose up against the power of the interior of Nagara Daha and made Bajarmasin on the banks of the Kwin River the center of his government (this area was called Kampung Kraton) .
The Prince Samudera rebellion was the opening of a new era in the history of South Kalimantan as well as being a turning point in the beginning of the Islamic period and the end of the Hindu era. Because he was the forerunner of Banjar Islam and the founder of the Banjar Kingdom.
In subsequent historical developments in 1859, a Banjar nobleman, namely Prince Antasari, mobilized the people of South Kalimantan to fight against Dutch colonialism, although finally in 1905 the resistance was crushed by the Dutch.
Smooth relations with the island of Java also influence developments in South Kalimantan. The growth of national movements on the island of Java quickly spread to the South Kalimantan area, this was reflected in the formation of forums for struggle in 1912 in Banjarmasin, such as the establishment of Islamic Sarikat branches throughout South Kalimantan. Along with this, the youth of Kalimantan were encouraged to form Youth Organizations, namely the Marabahan Youth, Barabai and others, which then in 1929 formed the Borneo Youth Association.
These struggle organizations were a forum for spreading national awareness against Dutch colonial rule.
The post-Proclamation of Independence period was the most heroic moment in the history of South Kalimantan, where on October 16 1945 the most radical Struggle Agency was formed, namely the Kalimantan Republic of Indonesia Youth Agency (BPRIK) led by Hadhariyah M. and A. Ruslan, but on the way Subsequently, this struggle movement experienced obstacles, especially with the agreement of the Linggarjati agreement on November 15 1945. Based on this agreement, the space for movement of the government of the Republic of Indonesia was limited to the areas of Java, Madura and Sumatra so that struggle organizations in South Kalimantan lost contact with Jakarta, Although finally in 1950 following the dissolution of the State of East Indonesia which was formed by the Dutch colonialists, South Kalimantan again became an inseparable part of the Republic of Indonesia to this day.
Official Name: South Kalimantan Province
Area: 38,744.23 Km2 *)
Population: 4,087,776 people *)
Ethnic groups: Banjar, Bakumpai Dayak, Baraki Dayak, Maanyan Dayak, Lawangan Dayak, Bukit Ngaju Dayak, Javanese Malay, Bugis, Chinese and Arab Descent.
Religion: Islam 96.80%; Protestant 28.51%; Catholic 18.12%; Hindus 9.51%; Buddhism 17.59%.
Administrative Area: 11 Regencies; 2 Cities; 151 Districts; 142 Subdistricts; 1,842 Villages *)
*) Source: Minister of Home Affairs Regulation Number 66 of 2011