Maluku Utara – North Maluku

History of North Maluku

North Maluku is one of the Indonesian provinces located in the Maluku Islands. North Maluku has officially become a province since 2003 on the legal basis of Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 6 of 2003. Previously, North Maluku as stated in Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 46 of 1999 was a Regency of the administrative region of Maluku Province. Initially, North Maluku had its capital in Ternate. However, since August 4 2010 the capital of North Maluku Province has moved to Sofifi City on Halmahera Island. The area of North Maluku reaches 31,982.50 km2. The region consists of 10 districts and 115 sub-districts. Based on data from the Central Statistics Agency (BPS) in 2021, the total population of North Maluku Province reached 1,316,973 people. History of North Maluku Province The history of North Maluku Province cannot be separated from the existence of the four great Islamic kingdoms of the Eastern Archipelago. The kingdom consisted of the Bacan Sultanate, Jailolo Sultanate, Tidore Sultanate and Ternate Sultanate. Initially, the four kingdoms ran their own governments. However, around the 13th century, the 7th Sultan of Ternate named Kolano Cili Aiya took the initiative to invite the rulers of the other three kingdoms to consult. The result of the deliberations was the establishment of an alliance of the four kingdoms. The alliance of the four kingdoms was known as Moloku Kie Raha or the Sultanate of the Four Mountains in Maluku. In the 15th century, North Maluku entered the colonial period. The first nation to set foot in North Maluku was the Portuguese, specifically in Ternate. At first the Portuguese were welcomed so well that they took the position of royal advisor. This cooperation did not last long, conflicts began to arise in both camps. The peak was the killing of Sultan Khairun by the Portuguese. Sultan Khairun’s son, Sultan Baabullah, led the struggle to avenge his father. The attack required the Portuguese to retreat to Ambon. Furthermore, in the 16th century Spain also tried to establish a trade monopoly in Tidore. However, this did not last long, due to political problems related to the Toresillas Agreement, Spain had to leave Maluku. During Japan’s position. North Maluku, or more precisely, Morotai Island, was once a battlefield between Japan and the Allies. Geographical Location of North Maluku Province North Maluku is located at the coordinates 3º 40′ South Latitude – 3º 0′ North Latitude 123º 50′ – 129º 50′ East Longitude. Quoted on the BPKP page, North Maluku Province is a group of islands with a land to water ratio of 24:76. It has a group of 395 islands, 83% or around 331 of the islands are uninhabited. This province borders directly on a number of surrounding water areas. To the north it borders the Pacific Ocean. Then to the south it borders the Seram Sea. Meanwhile, to the west it borders the Maluku Sea and to the east it borders the Halmahera Sea. Demographics of North Maluku Province The population of North Maluku comes from various tribes such as the Madole Tribe, Pagu Tribe, Ternate Tribe, West Makian Tribe, Kao Tribe, Tidore Tribe, Buli Tribe, Patani Tribe, Maba Tribe, Sawai Tribe, and Weda Tribe. There are also the Gane Tribe, East Makian Tribe, Kayoa Tribe, Bacan Tribe, Sula Tribe, Ange Tribe, Siboyo Tribe, Kadai Tribe, Galela Tribe, Tobelo Tribe, Loloda Tribe, Tobaru Tribe, Sahu Tribe, Arab Tribe, and Europe. The majority of the population is Muslim with a percentage reaching more than 74 percent. The rest are adherents of other religions such as Protestant Christians, Catholic Christians, Hindus, Buddhists and Confucians. North Maluku’s economy operates in the agriculture, fisheries and marine products sectors. The main commodities include copra, nutmeg, cloves, fisheries products, gold and nickel.

Read more in the article “Profile of North Maluku Province: History, Geographical Location and Map”,