Nusa Tenggara Timur

History of East Nusa Tenggara

In the period after 1900, the kingdoms in East Nusa Tenggara generally changed their status to Swapraja status. Of these self-swaprajas, 10 are on the island of Timor (Kupang, Amarasi, Fatuleu, Amfoang, Molo, Amanuban, Amanatun, Mio Mafo, Biboki, Insana) one on the island of Rote, one on the island of Sabu, 15 on the island of Sumba (Kanatang, Lewa -Kanbera, Takundung, Melolo, Rendi Mangili, Wei jelu, Masukaren, Laura, Waijewa, Kodi-Laula, Membora, Umbu Ratunggay, Ana Kalang, Wanokaka, Lambaja), nine on the island of Flores (Ende, Lio, Larantuka, Adonara, Sikka , Angada, Riung, Nage Keo, Manggarai), seven on the islands of Alor-Pantar (Alor, Baranusa, Pantar, Matahari Naik, Kolana, Batu Lolang, Purema).

These self-supporting societies are further divided into parts with smaller areas. These small areas are called cafetorans.


On March 8 1942 the Dutch military command in Indonesia surrendered unconditionally to Japan. Thus, Japan officially replaced the Netherlands as the holder of power in Indonesia. For eastern Indonesia, this includes the Indonesian region. The eastern part of the NTT region is under the control of the Japanese navy (Kaigun) which is based in Makasar. Meanwhile, in order to run the government in the area occupied by Kaigun, he formed his government. The Eastern part of Indonesia is headed by Minseifu who is based in Makasar. Under Minseifu is Minseibu which for the East Nusa Tenggara area is included in the Sjoo Sunda Shu (Little Sunda) which is under the leadership of Minseifu Cokan which is based in Singaraja.

Beside Minseibu Cokan there is a people’s representative council called Syoo Sunda Sukai Yin. This council is also based in Singaraja. Among the members of this council who came from East Nusa Tenggara was Raja Amarasi H.A. Koroh and I.H. Doc. For government in the regions, it seems that not much has changed, only the terms have been changed. The former Afdeeling region was changed to Ken and in NTT there are three Ken, namely Timor Ken, Flores Ken and Sumba Ken. These Kens are each headed by Ken Kanrikan. Meanwhile, each Ken consists of several Bunken (the same as the onder afdeeling area) headed by the Karikan Bunken. Under the Bunken area there are self-swaprajas headed by kings and the self-government government down to the people has not changed.


After Japan surrendered, the Head of the Japanese Government (Ken Kanrikan) in Kupang decided to hand over government over Kupang City to three people, namely Dr.A.Gakeler as mayor, Tom Pello and I.H.Doko. However, this did not last long, because NICA troops immediately took over the civil government in NTT, where the government composition and officials were mostly Dutch officials before World War II. In this way, NTT became Dutch territory again, the government system before the war was re-established. In 1945, the movement secretly learned about the struggle of the Republic of Indonesia via radio. Therefore, the movement revived the Timor National United Party which was founded in 1937 and later changed to the Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI).

Political struggles continued, until in 1950 a new phase began with the abolition of the council of kings. In May 1951 the Minister of Home Affairs NIT appointed Y.S. Amalo became Regional Head of Timor and its islands replacing H.A.Koroh who died on March 30 1951. At that time the East Nusa Tenggara area was included in the Lesser Sunda Province.
Based on the wishes and desires of the people of the Nusa Tenggara Region, in the form of resolutions, motions, statements and delegations to the Central Government and the Regional Division Committee established by Presidential Decree No. 202/1956 concerning Nusa Tenggara, the government is of the opinion that the time has come to divide The Nusa Tenggara Province region is included in RIS Government Regulation no. 21 of 1950, (State Gazette RIS of 1950 No. 59) into three level I regions as intended by Law No. I Bali, West Nusa Tenggara and East Nusa Tenggara. The Level I region of East Nusa Tenggara includes Flores, Sumba and Timor.

Based on Law No. 69/1958 concerning the formation of Level II regions within the Level I regions of Bali, West Nusa Tenggara and East Nusa Tenggara, the Level I Swatantra Region of East Nusa Tenggara is divided into 12 Level II Swatantra Regions (NTT Monograph , 1975, p. 297). The existing level II autonomous regions are: West Sumba, East Sumba, Manggarai, Angada, Ende, Sikka, East Flores, Alor, Kupang, South Central Timo, North Central Timor and Belu.

With the issuance of the Decree of the Governor of the Regional Head of District I of East Nusa Tenggara dated 28 February 1962 No.Pem.66/1/2 yo dated 2 July 1962 concerning the formation of sub-districts in the Level I Swatantra Region of East Nusa Tenggara, it was de facto starting on 1 July 1962 self-government was abolished (NTT Monograph, Ibid, p. 306). Meanwhile, de jure only started on September 1 1965 with the enactment of Law no. 18 of 1965 concerning the principles of regional government. At that time, the title of the Level I Self-Sovereign Region of East Nusa Tenggara was changed to East Nusa Tenggara Province, while the Level II Self-Regional Region was changed to Regency.

Based on the Decree of the Governor of the Head of the Level I Region of East Nusa Tenggara in Kupang, dated 20 July 1963 No.66/1/32 concerning the formation of sub-districts, the Province of East Nusa Tenggara with 12 Level II Regions was divided into 90 sub-districts and 4,555 traditional villages, namely villages which is a genealogical unit which was then transformed into a new style village.
In 2003, the East Nusa Tenggara Province region consisted of 16 districts and one city. The districts and cities are: West Sumba, East Sumba, Kupang, South Central Timor, North Central Timor, Belu, Alor, Lembata, East Flores, Sikka, Ende, Angada, Manggarai, Rote Ndao, West Manggarai and Kupang City. The 16 districts and one city are divided into 197 sub-districts and 2,585 villages/sub-districts.


At that time, the East Nusa Tenggara region was the legal territory of the Timor residency and its subordinate areas. Residency of Timor and the western region (Indonesian Timor at that time, Flores, Sumba, Sumbawa and the surrounding small islands such as Rote, Sabu, Alor, Pantar, Lomblen, Adonara, Solor).

The residency of Timor and its conquered areas is centered in Kupang, which has an area consisting of three affdelings (Timor, Flores, Sumba and Sumbawa), 15 onderafdeelings and 48 Swapraja. Afdeeling Timor and its islands consist of 6 onderafdeeling with its capital in Kupang. Afdeeling Flores consists of 5 onder afdeeling with its capital in Ende. The third is Afdeeling Sumbawa and Sumba with the capital in Raba (Bima). Afdeeling Sumbawa and Sumba consists of 4 afdeeling orders.

The residency of Timor and the conquered areas is led by a resident, while the afdeeling is led by an assistant resident. This resident assistant supervises the Controller or Controleur and Geraghebber as the Onder afdeeling leader. Resident assistants, controllers and gezaghebber were the Dutch colonial civil service. The heads of onder afdeeling, namely controllers, are assisted by the Bumi Putra civil service with the rank of Bestuurs Assistant. (Ch. Kana, 1969, pp. 49-51).SE