History of Central Sulawesi
On April 13 1964, Central Sulawesi Province was formed. In its age of more than half a century, many important events have colored the history of this province. For wise people, history in the past is a source of inspiration for the present and the future. By understanding history, heroic deeds and glorious events in the past are expected to become a source of inspiration to trigger great events as well. This history includes what is described below.
In the 13th century, several kingdoms existed in Central Sulawesi such as the Banawa Kingdom, Tawaeli Kingdom, Sigi Kingdom, Bangga Kingdom, and Banggai Kingdom. The influence of Islam on the kingdoms in Central Sulawesi began to be felt in the 16th century. The spread of Islam in Central Sulawesi was the result of the expansion of the kingdoms in South Sulawesi. The influence that first came was from the Kingdom of Bone and the Kingdom of Wajo. The influence of South Sulawesi was very strong on the Kingdoms in Central Sulawesi, even down to governance. The government structure of the kingdoms in Central Sulawesi was finally divided into two, namely, one in the form of Pitunggota and the other in the form of Patmember. Pitunggota is a legislative institution consisting of seven members and chaired by a Baligau.
This government structure follows the Bone-style government structure and is found in the Banawa Kingdom and the Sigi Kingdom. Another structure, namely, PatMember, is a Wajo-style government and is adopted by the Palu Kingdom and the Tawaeli Kingdom. Tawaeli’s members consist of Mupabomba, Lambara, Mpanau, and Baiya. Another influence comes from Mandar. The kingdoms in Tomini Bay were the forerunners of Mandar. Another Mandar influence is the use of the term king. Before this influence came in, in Tomini Bay there was only the title Olongian or landowners who autonomously controlled their respective territories. Apart from the influence of Mandar, the kingdoms in Tomini Bay were also influenced by Gorontalo and Ternate. This can be seen in the government structure which more or less follows the government structure in Gorontalo and Ternate. The government structure consists of Olongian (head of state), Jogugu (prime minister), KapitanLaut (Minister of Defense), Walaapulu (minister of finance), Ukum (minister of transportation), and Madinu (minister of information)
With the expanding influence of South Sulawesi, the religion of Islam also spread. The first areas colored by Islam were coastal areas. In the mid-16th century, two kingdoms, namely Buol and Luwuk, accepted Islamic teachings. Since 1540, Buol has been in the form of a sultanate and is led by a sultan named Eato Mohammad Tahir. Starting in the 17th century, the Central Sulawesi region began to fall under Dutch colonial rule. Under the pretext of protecting its fleet from pirate attacks, the VOC built forts in Parigi and Lambunu. In the 18th century, it increased its pressure on the kings of Central Sulawesi. They summoned the kings of Central Sulawesi to come to Manado and Gorontalo
to swear allegiance to the VOC. In this way, the VOC meant that it had controlled the kingdoms in Central Sulawesi. At the beginning of the 20th century, by binding an agreement called the lang contract and korte verklaring, the Dutch had completely controlled Central Sulawesi. Against the rebellious kingdom, the Dutch crushed them with armed violence. At the beginning of the 20th century, movements began to emerge that resisted Dutch colonialism. Apart from local movements, there were also movements centered in Java.
The first organization to establish a branch in Central Sulawesi was Syarikat Islam (SI), founded in Buol Toli-Toli in 1916. Another organization that developed in this region was the Indonesian National Party (PNI). ) whose branch was founded in Buol in 1928. Other organizations that opened branches in Central Sulawesi were Muhammadiyah and PSII. People’s resistance reached its peak on January 25 1942. The fighters led by I.D. Awuy arrested colonial figures such as Controleur Toli-Toli De Hoof, Bestuur Assistant Resident Matata Daeng Masese, and Controleur Buol de Vries. With the capture of these colonial figures, Dutch rule had practically ended. On February 1, 1942, the red and white was flown for the first time in the Toli-Toli sky.
However, this situation did not last long because a week later the Dutch troops came again and launched an attack. Even though they had carried out attacks, the Dutch did not have time to regain control in Central Sulawesi because at that time, Japan landed in that region, precisely in Luwuk on May 15 1942. In a short time, Japan succeeded in controlling the Central Sulawesi region. In the Japanese era, people’s lives became increasingly depressed and miserable, all people’s activities were only aimed at supporting Japan’s war. This situation lasted until Japan surrendered to the Allies and was followed by the proclamation of independence for the Republic of Indonesia
At the beginning of independence, Central Sulawesi was part of the province Sulawesi. Like other regions in Indonesia, post-independence This is the time to struggle to defend our new independence achieved. The noise continued to come from the Dutch who wanted to re-colonize Indonesia.The Netherlands implemented divide-and-rule politics where Indonesia become a union state. But in the end the Indonesian people were able to get through This was undermined and on August 17 1950 Indonesia returned to being a unitary state.
Since then, Sulawesi has again become a province in the Republic of Indonesia and lasted until expansion occurred in 1960. In that year, Sulawesi was divided into South-Southeast Sulawesi with its capital in Makassar and North-Central Sulawesi with its capital in Manado. In 1964, North-Central Sulawesi Province was divided into the province of North Sulawesi with its capital in Manado and Central Sulawesi with its capital in Palu. On April 13 1964, for the first time a separate Governor of Central Sulawesi Province was appointed, so this date is also celebrated as the province’s birthday to this day.